The threat of biological warefare essay

Inflection points are marked in the margins of the text with a gray triangle. Aiming to leave open the option of restarting BW activities once UN inspections were over and sanctions were lifted, Baghdad attempted to remove all possible signatures of its past offensive activities. Simultaneously, Iraq undertook a significant denial and deception effort intended to conceal from the UN the true nature, scope, and ultimate objectives of the program.

The threat of biological warefare essay

The threat of biological warefare

Highlight and copy the desired format. Biological Warfare at the Siege of Caffa.

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Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8 9 This is not only of great historical interest but also relevant to current efforts to evaluate the threat of military or terrorist use of biological weapons.

This theory is consistent with the technology of the times and with contemporary notions of disease causation; however, the entry of plague into Europe from the Crimea likely occurred independent of this event. The Black Death, which swept through Europe, the Near East, and North Africa in the midth century, was probably the greatest public health disaster in recorded history and one of the most dramatic examples ever of emerging or reemerging disease.

Europe lost an estimated one quarter to one third of its population, and the mortality in North Africa and the Near East was comparable. China, India, and the rest of the Far East are commonly believed to have also been severely affected, but little evidence supports that belief 1.

This memoir has been published several times in its original Latin 23 and has recently been translated into English 4 although brief passages have been previously published in translation, see reference [ 5 ].

This narrative contains some startling assertions: If this account is correct, Caffa should be recognized as the site of the most spectacular incident of biological warfare ever, with the Black Death as its disastrous consequence.

After analyzing these claims, I have concluded that it is plausible that the biological attack took place as described and was responsible for infecting the inhabitants of Caffa; however, the event was unimportant in the spread of the plague pandemic.

Thesis Statement on The threat of biological warefare | Category: Military

Origin of the 14th-Century Pandemic Figure 1 Figure 1. Tentative chronology of the initial spread of plague in the midth century 12 — The disease that caused this catastrophic pandemic has, since Hecker 6generally been considered to have been plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis, the principal reservoir for which is wild rodents 7 — The ultimate origin of the Black Death is uncertain—China, Mongolia, India, central Asia, and southern Russia have all been suggested see Norris [ 1 ] for a discussion of the various theories.

Known 14th-century sources are of little help; they refer repeatedly to an eastern origin, but none of the reports is first-hand. Historians generally agree that the outbreak moved west out of the steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas, and its spread through Europe and the Middle East is fairly well documented Figure 1.

However, despite more than a century of speculation about an ultimate origin further east, the requisite scholarship using Chinese and central Asian sources has yet to be done. In any event, the Crimea clearly played a pivotal role as the proximal source from which the Mediterranean Basin was infected.

Biological Warfare — Central Intelligence Agency

It was the main port for the great Genoese merchant ships 16 — 20which connected there to a coastal shipping industry to Tana now Azov, Russia on the Don River. Trade along the Don connected Tana to Central Russia, and overland caravan routes linked it to Sarai and thence to the Far East 1219 Relations between Italian traders and their Mongol hosts were uneasy, and in Toqtai, Kahn of the Golden Horde, arrested the Italian residents of Sarai, and besieged Caffa.

The Genoese resisted for a year, but in set fire to their city and abandoned it. By the s, Caffa was again a thriving city, heavily fortified within two concentric walls.

The inner wall enclosed 6, houses, the outer 11, The Italian merchants in Tana fled to Caffa which, by virtue of its location directly on the coast, maintained maritime access despite the siege. The siege of Caffa lasted until Februarywhen it was lifted after an Italian relief force killed 15, Mongol troops and destroyed their siege machines Janibeg renewed the siege in but was again forced to lift it after a year, this time by an epidemic of plague that devastated his forces.Essay on Biological Weapons and Biological Warfare - Biological Weapons and Biological Warfare Thesis: Biological Warfare is morally and inhumanely wrong, .

Biological weapons have slowly evolved into a cheap and deadly way of exterminating human beings.

The threat of biological warefare essay

The threat of bioterrorism to every country in the world has been increasing/5(6). Biological warfare has become very possible at this arteensevilla.com science of genetics is constantly evolving and there are many countries that have established research Centers biological weapons on the pretext of “peaceful research”.

The Threats of Biological Warfare Essay; The Threats of Biological Warfare Essay. Words 10 Pages.

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However, the sad reality is that most Americans are not well informed about how dangerous the threat of biological warfare really is. Not only that, but our own government is not even prepared to deal with a biological attack, something. Download thesis statement on The threat of biological warefare in our database or order an original thesis paper that will be written by one of our staff writers and delivered according to the deadline.

Apr 23,  · The Biological Warfare (BW) program was born of the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS) and this service retained its connections with the program either directly or indirectly throughout its existence.