Rome from its origins to bc Early Rome to bc Early Italy When Italy emerged into the light of history about bc, it was already inhabited by various peoples of different cultures and languages.
Purple Reign - From their naval prowess, to the creation of the alphabet, to their fashionable purple dye, the Phoenicians had a profound impact on the ancient world! It was discovered in the ruins…Read more This illustration is of a gypseous alabaster frieze depicting a small boat transporting timber.
The horse-headed boat is most likely loaded with cedarwood—one of the biggest exports of Canaan present-day Lebanon. Phoenicians were perhaps the first mariners to adopt celestial navigation, charting their way across the seas using Polaris the North Star as a guide.
The Phoenicians were the great mariners of the ancient world, and their thalassocracy maritime realm was organized into city-states akin to the Greeks.
Inhabitants of the Phoenician city-states along the Eastern Mediterranean coast like Sidon and Tyre might have called themselves Kenaani Canaanites ; or with appellations relating to their particular city-states e.
Over the centuries merchants and explorers from these city-states spread across the Mediterranean; and perhaps even navigated as far as the British Isles to bring back tin—a scarcity in the Mediterranean but a crucial ingredient, along with copper from the island of Cyprus where the Phoenicians also had a footholdfor the making of bronze.
Two of the most dominant and influential of the Phoenician home citadels that rose to power after BCE were the abovementioned Sidon and Tyre.
Vintage engraving of the site of ancient Carthage The greatest of all the Phoenician city-states, however, was Carthage in North Africa. Carthago was destroyed in BCE thus ending the era of Phoenician power and expansion. This crucial event serves as the endpoint in our History Date Range for this civilization, although remnants of the Phoenician culture lingered on long after the fall of Carthage.
Instead of acquiring a physical empire of contiguous lands, they gradually built a large trading and colonial network from their home base of a few independent city-states along the coast of what is now Lebanon, Southern Syria and Northern Israel.
Spreading westward, the Phoenicians founded colonies on Cyprus and in the region of the Aegean Sea including the coast of Turkey ; on the islands of Malta, Sardinia, Sicily and the Balearic archipelago; and in North Africa, Spain and Portugal as well as other locations in the Mediterranean.
The most important of these earliest Phoenician city-states were in Canaan: These coastal cities were hemmed in on the inland side by the Lebanon Mountains.
Roman ruins on the site of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia The only obvious opportunity for expansion and economic gain was by sea; and over the centuries the Phoenician trading posts and colonies spread west across the Mediterranean.
The largest and most prosperous of all the Phoenician-founded city-states was Carthage in present-day Tunisia. At its zenith, Carthage nearly conquered its greatest rival: The Minoans on Crete had blocked entrance into the Aegean, controlling all trade in that area, and perhaps even monopolizing trade further west.
The Canaanite coastal towns were usually governed by Egypt, and one of their principal businesses was providing wood the famed cedars of Lebanon and provisions like wine to the Nile region.
Phoenician trade routes Minoan territory had been taken over by the Mycenaeans prior to BCE, and the subsequent fall of that culture during the catastrophic events at the end of the 13th century BCE removed most of the constraints on Mediterranean and Aegean trade for surviving civilizations.
The Phoenicians were the most aggressive of those attempting to fill the void. Their cities were well positioned for this enterprise, being located literally in the center of the known world.
The Aegean, Mesopotamia, and Egypt were all roughly equidistant to the west, east, and south. For any of the three regions to trade with another, the easiest route was through the Phoenician city-states. In the face of repeated assaults or heavy tribute payments, the Tyrians adopted the strategy of establishing colonies to the west.
These settlements were removed from the grasp of their Eastern overlords, helping with the exploitation of metals and trade in the western Mediterranean.
Over the next years, Carthage grew rapidly in size and power. Much of its wealth came from highly productive ore mines of Spain. Carthage fought for control of the Western Mediterranean first with the Greeks and then with the Romans. Phoenician dyes ranging in color from a pink to a deep purple were made from the secretions of the carnivorous murex sea snail.
In Rome, this highly coveted dye was called Tyrian Purple after the Phoenician city of Tyre where it was made and it was worth quite literally more than its weight in gold.
Phoenician merchants may have traded for tin as far north as Cornwall Lizard Point, Cornwall, England, UK Gradually the Phoenician city-states became centers of maritime trade and manufacturing.
Having limited natural resources, they imported raw materials and fashioned them into more valuable objects that could be shipped profitably, such as jewelry, ivory carvings discovered at sites in Mesopotamia metalwork, furniture found in tombs on Cyprushousewares, and specialty items like painted ostrich eggs.
They borrowed techniques and styles from all corners of the world that they touched as traders.
Sixty years later, a study of this beautiful work using isotopic analysis concluded that the gold came from a nearby Spanish mine; but it was also determined that the ornaments were crafted using Phoenician techniques. In a 2,year-old Phoenician wreck was discovered off the coast of Malta that had carried a shipment of grinding stones made of lava rock and scores of amphorae.
We can only hope that more discoveries will be made revealing new secrets about this culture. Modern sculpture of Herodotus Born c.
The ancient Greek historian Herodotus wrote that, in bygone days, the Phoenicians taught the Greeks of Boeotia the writing system that would eventually become the Greek alphabet. He also noted that Phoenician traders brought frankincense to the Aegean; and taught the Greeks the word for an exotic spice:The Germanic tribes important to Roman downfall originated in Scandinavia, from which they moved south around BCE.
By BCE they had reached the Rhine area, and about two hundred years later, the Danube Basin, both Roman borders. The western . Background: In the years before Caesar became powerful, Rome was suffering from a great deal of disorder and violence. During the 80's B.C., two Roman leaders, Marius and Sulla had clashed for power.
In modern literature, for example, are considered types such as oral, written, book and screen, “” cosmogenic, technological and man-made, “” traditional and modern, “” evolutionary and innovative “civilization.
In conclusion, it may be said that the Greeks and Roman influence on Modern Western civilization is a literally incalculable. In short, the Greco-Roman world gave birth to Western civilization in all its glory and with all its failings.
In this chapter, we will prove from the Bible and other historical sources that modern-day Germany descended from the ancient Assyrians. Certainly, the Bible is the greatest historical source of all.
Certainly, the Bible is the greatest historical source of all. influence of the roman army on modern civilization. From early times right down to the 3rd century A.D, the Roman army was based on its legions.
A legion varied in strength from 4, to 6, men, and was subdivided onto ten cohorts/5(8).